EVOLUTION MAKING SENSE OF LIFE PDF

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PDF | A comprehensive, engaging textbook about evolution for biology majors now in its second edition. PDF | On Jan 11, , Carl Zimmer and others published Ebook Evolution: Making Sense of Life By. These separate lines of evidence all support the same scenario for the evolution of marsupials (Springer et al. ). Marsupial-like mammals were living in.


Evolution Making Sense Of Life Pdf

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by カール・ジンマー. Carl Zimmer; Douglas J Emlen; Isao Sarashina; Makiko Ishikawa; Yoshiki Kunitomo. Print book. Japanese. 講談社, Tōkyō: Kōdansha. (Download) Evolution: Making Sense of Life By Carl Zimmer PDF #Audiobook lyatrusavquoper.cf?book= #readOnline. Evolution: Making Sense of Life site Barnes & Noble IndieBound Co-author Doug Emlen is interviewed by Nature about creating an ebook version.

Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Making Sense of Life Online 2. Book Details Author: Zimmer ,Douglas J. Emlen Pages: Paperback Brand: Description Science writer Carl Zimmer and evolutionary biologist Douglas Emlen have produced a thoroughly revised new edition of their widely praised evolution textbook.

Emlen, an award-winning evolutionary biologist at the University of Montana, has infused Evolution: Zimmer, an award-winning New York Times columnist, brings compelling storytelling to the book, bringing evolutionary research to life.

Students will learn the fundamental concepts of evolutionary theory, such as natural selection, genetic drift, phylogeny, and coevolution. The book also drives home the relevance of evolution for disciplines ranging from conservation biology to medicine.

With riveting stories about evolutionary biologists at work everywhere from the Arctic to tropical rainforests to hospital wards, the book is a reading adventure designed to grab the imagination of students, showing them exactly why it is that evolution makes such brilliant sense of life.

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Zimmer C., Emlen D.J. Evolution: Making Sense of Life

Some of the first Cambrian arthropod fossils, such as trilobites, share these key syn- apomorphies. The colored circles indicate the common ancestor of living members of animal phyla. Just as we saw in Chapter 4 how dinosaurs gave rise to birds and how lobe-finned fish gave rise to tetrapods, here we see that early bilaterians gave rise to true arthropods Figure Biologists can then use these phylogenies as a framework for investi- gating how mutations in developmental genes produced innovations in animal body plans Chapter These studies show that the Cambrian Explosion occurred after some million years of animal evolution through a stepwise emergence of new body plans.

Scientists who study the Cambrian Explosion are investigating why animal evo- lution proceeded at a relatively slow pace for hundreds of millions of years before accelerating around million years ago. To develop hypotheses, they gather many lines of evidence. Besides examining fossils, they also look at living animals to recon- struct the evolution of the animal toolkit see Chapter They reconstruct changing Figure Arthropods—a group that includes insects, spiders, and crustaceans—share a number of traits, such as jointed exoskeletons.

Adapted from Budd Living velvet worms Aysheaia Common ancestor Hallucigenia of velvet worms and arthropods Appendages differentiate Kerygmachela Complex segments Opabinia Lateral lobes Lever muscles, Anomalocaris compound eyes Legs harden Living arthropods Hardening complete chapter fourteen macroevolution: They also examine fossils for signs of ecological change.

We saw on page 78 that during the Cambrian Explosion, many such new ecological features emerged. The evolution of the bilaterian genetic toolkit was crucial, because it enabled lineages of animals to evolve dramatically new body plans with relatively modest mutations to developmental genes.

But molecular phy- logenetic studies suggest that this toolkit was in place over million years before the Cambrian Explosion. During that interval, bilaterians were probably small, worm- like creatures living alongside sponges, jellyfish-like animals, and Ediacaran species anchored to the seafloor Figure 3. Recent studies indicate that early in dramatically.

Scientists have found the Cambrian, around million years ago, the oceans underwent a major rise in million-year-old fossils of an sea level due to tectonic activity.

Large swaths of coastal regions were submerged, and animal called Cloudina that bear holes marine animals swiftly colonized these new habitats. At that time, Smith and Harper note, an abundance of small shells appear in the fossil record. Shells might have evolved originally as a defense against calcium poisoning, allowing animals to safely remove the mineral from their tissues. But eventually, the mineralization of animals took on new functions such as hardened weapons like mandibles and claws for predators and thick defenses for prey.

At the same time, oxygen levels in the oceans were rising for reasons that are not yet entirely clear Sahoo et al. The extra oxygen was a great boon to bilaterian animals. For one thing, animals need to burn fuel to make collagen, a protein that binds cells together in their bodies. And as animals began to move around in the ocean, powering their muscles demanded even more energy. The genetic toolkit, Smith and Harper propose, enabled bilaterians to rapidly evolve into new forms to take advantage of all the new ecological niches that were opening up.

And their biological evolution altered the chemical evolution of the oceans. Some bilaterians evolved into burrowers, and for the first time in the history of the oceans, the seafloor became shot through with tunnels.

The sediments on the seafloor became oxygenated, enabling many more animals to move into this vast habitat. Together, these processes drove the expansion of habitats for animals and spurred the increased complexity of the food web.

Once ani- mals began to evolve rapidly, they may have become caught in a feedback loop. Bigger predators evolved to eat smaller ones, for example. Both predators and prey may have evolved new sensory organs, like eyes, to detect their prey and their enemies. The Cambrian Explosion likely resulted because a developmental innovation at the microevolutionary level allowed lineages to radiate and occupy a tremendous diversity of new ecological opportunities.

Adapted from Smith and Harper From Background Noise to Mass Die-Offs Insights gained from studying microevolution can help scientists better understand macroevolution. In Chapter 13, we explored the origin of new species by looking at research on living populations that are reproductively isolated. These insights help us interpret the origination of new species in the fossil record and explore the factors that may drive adaptive radiations.

Likewise, we can gain some clues about the mac- roevolutionary patterns of extinction over hundreds of millions of years by examin- ing how species move toward extinction in our own time. A species is a lineage made up of linked populations. It can endure for millions of years, even though the total number of individuals in the species may fluctuate wildly over time—booming when a new source of food becomes available or shrink- ing under attack from a parasite.

Even if one population completely disappears, there are other populations to sustain the species and expand its range. If the total number of individuals in a species shrinks too far, however, it faces the risk of disappearing altogether.

Once a species falls below this threshold, any number of different factors may drive it extinct. If a lizard species is made up of just 50 individuals living on a single tiny island, a big hurricane can kill them all in one fell swoop. Small populations also face threats from their own genes.

Small populations also have less genetic variation, which can leave them less prepared to adapt quickly to a changing environment. When Dutch explorers arrived on the island of Mauritius in the s, for example, they discovered a big, flightless bird called the dodo Figure The explorers killed dodos for food and also inad- vertently introduced rats to Mauritius.

The dodo became extinct in the late s, probably due to hunting and predation by introduced species. The Carolina parakeet became extinct in the early s, due in part to logging, which removed the logs where it built its nests. As adult and young dodos alike were killed, the population shrank until only a single dodo was left. When it died, the species was gone forever Rijsdijk et al. Simply killing off individuals is not the only way to drive a species toward extinction.

Habitat loss—the destruction of a particular kind of environment where a species can thrive—can also put a species at risk. The Carolina parakeet once lived in huge numbers in the southeastern United States.

Loggers probably hastened its demise in the early s by cutting down the old-growth forests where the parakeets made their nests in hollow logs. A smaller habitat supported a smaller population, until the entire species collapsed.

These extinctions, and many other recent ones, have humans as their ultimate cause. But we humans have been capable of driving extinctions for only a geologi- cally short period of time.

Species have become naturally extinct through similar processes. Some species have become extinct through competition with other species. Some have been wiped out because they could not withstand changes to their local physical environment. The fossil record shows us that extinction is a continuous pro- cess. The typical rate of extinctions is called background extinction: A clade can survive background extinctions if lineages branch to form new species at a greater rate than the background extinction rate.

Higher extinction rates V also increase the risk of extinction. Extinction rates that rise for many clades all at once produce what are known as mass extinctions.

Mass extinctions can affect the biodiversity of the entire world, or they may affect only a region. For example, biologists can discuss a mass extinction of crinoids in the Indian Ocean during an interval of the Tertiary period. The existence of a mass extinction in the fossil record depends not on absolute magnitude, but on the relative change from the normal conditions. Scientists can determine the regularity of this process and use that background extinction rate to examine how departure from that rate affects the diversity of life on Earth.

Raup and Sepkoski measured the extinction rate for families of marine invertebrates and vertebrates. They identified five mass extinction events that A 20 a c e were significantly higher than the 15 background extinction rate.

Here, the mass extinction events are marked in Total extinction rate purple. Background extinction rate measurements are noted by red dots. Standing diversity through time 10 for families of marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The letters mark the Big Five mass extinction events. Adapted from Raup and Sepkoski Cambrian Ordovician Sil. Carboniferous Dev. Jurassic Perm.

Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Cretaceous Tertiary 0 Million years before present B e Number of families b a d c 0 Cambrian Ord. Carboniferous Carbon. Jurassic Cambrian Ordovician Sil. Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Cretaceous Tertiary 0 Million years before present In Dave Raup and Jack Sepkoski charted the total extinction rate for families of marine invertebrates per million years through time see Figure They found five peaks of extinction far above all the rest, including major drops in standing diversity of marine families.

The Big Five mass extinctions were truly catastrophic. The biggest of them all, which occurred at the boundary of the Permian and Triassic periods, million years ago, is estimated to have claimed 96 percent of all species on Earth.

The end-Ordovician, end-Permian, and end-Cretaceous events each resulted from a dramatic rise in extinction rates see Figure The other two resulted from a drop in origination rates as well as heightened extinction. The Big Five also differed in the ecological profile of their victims Bam- bach et al.

The end-Ordovician mass extinctions took their heaviest toll on trilobites, for example, while the greatest losses in the end-Permian mass extinctions were experienced by brachiopods, crinoids, and anthozoan corals. To explain how these mass extinctions occurred, paleontologists have acted like forensic scientists who gather clues from a crime scene to infer the cause of death. But because the deaths they study occurred millions of years ago, their detective work is far more challenging.

Over the course of many decades of research, scientists have identified a number of compelling candidates for the causes of mass extinctions.

Making matters more complex, the evidence indicates that several different causes have often interacted to cause a single bout of mass extinctions Table A range of physical causes appear to be involved in mass extinctions. Sea-level regressions, for example, are associated with many mass extinctions. They reduced the available surface area on the continental shelves. Exactly how sea-level regres- sions may have caused extinctions is still a matter of debate.

On the other hand, sea-level transgression—in which the ocean rises and spreads over land—may sometimes cause extinctions as well. Transgression can deliver oxygen- poor water from the deep ocean into coastal regions, making it difficult for many animals to survive.

Along with changes in sea level and ocean chemistry, the climate can also play a major role in mass extinctions. If climate-altering gases are introduced quickly enough into the atmosphere—through volcanoes, for example—they can create cli- mate change so rapid that many species cannot adapt and become extinct.

Biological causes can also play a part in mass extinctions. Losing individual spe- cies can eventually put a whole ecosystem at risk. Removing a species can endanger its ecological partners as well.

The result can be ecological collapse. Scientists have been able to document this change thanks to the discovery of geological formations in southern China from just before and after the mass extinction.

The rocks have a wealth of fossils, and they are arranged in a dense stack of thin layers, many of which can be precisely dated using uranium and lead isotopes. The most recent analysis of these rocks reveals that the end-Permian extinctions occurred in a geological flash—less than 60, years Burgess et al. The rocks also reveal a massive shift in carbon isotopes over just 10, years that occurred shortly before the extinctions. This carbon may have been injected by volcanoes, which are known to have been unusually active just before the mass extinctions.

Scientists have also found evidence that at the end of the Permian period, the ocean warmed drastically—possibly due to the heat-trapping gases released by the volca- noes. Carbon dissolving in the oceans acidified the water, disrupting the physiology of many marine organisms.

At the same time, the carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere warmed the planet. The high temperatures in the ocean drove out much of the free oxygen in the surface waters. Some researchers have suggested that in these acidic, low-oxygen waters, once-rare types of bacteria thrived, releasing toxic gases such as hydrogen sulfide Erwin There is also evidence for extraterrestrial causes playing a part in mass extinc- tions.

Over the years, scientists have proposed a number of these causes, including Adapted from Barnosky et al. Table Uplift and weathering of the Appalachians af- fecting atmospheric and ocean chemistry. Sequestration of carbon dioxide, lowering aver- age global temperatures. Evidence for widespread deep-water anoxia and the spread of anoxic waters by trans- gressions. Some evidence exists of impacts of an asteroid or comet, but their timing and importance are a subject of debate. The Permian Event Ended million years ago; in less than Siberian volcanism.

Spread of deep marine anoxic waters. Elevated hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide concen- trations in both marine and terrestrial realms. Ocean acidification. Evidence for an impact still debated. The Triassic Event Ended million years ago; within 8. The Cretaceous Event Ended 65 million years ago; within 2. Preceding the impact, biota may have been de- clining owing to a variety of causes: Only one kind of extrater- restrial threat to life has left a mark: In the s, Walter and Luis Alvarez and their colleagues discovered that rocks from the end of the Cretaceous period had unusually high levels of an element called iridium Figure They proposed that an iridium-rich object struck the Earth, and the impact distributed the iridium around the world.

The Alvarezes noted a particu- larly intriguing coincidence: The boundary of Brusatte et al. The Alvarezes and their colleagues proposed that the impact the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods was the cause of the end-Cretaceous extinction Alvarez et al.

Excited tions and an excursion of carbon by this discovery, other scientists proposed catastrophic scenarios. Computer models isotopes. Adapted from Keller Soot depos- its found near the boundary layer suggested that wildfires raged around the world Figure This close timing is compelling evi- off the coast of Mexico. The structure dence that the impact played a major role in the mass extinctions at the end of the is about kilometers across and Cretaceous. In the 1 million years leading to the impact, temperatures rapidly rose and fell several times, possibly due to major volcanic eruptions that occurred at the time.

Sea levels also changed drastically. Renne and his colleagues propose that these perturbations put stress on the global ecosystem, and the impact delivered the fatal blow. There is no single mechanism that explains all mass extinctions.

They found that were either extinct or surviving only in zoos. Many of the remaining species were at risk of extinction in the future. The scientists have estimated that 21, are threatened and are critically endangered Pimm et al. Deforestation, overfishing, and other distur- bances are pushing these species toward extinction Figure Are these recent extinctions any different from the background extinctions that have occurred for billions of years? Or have the Big Five become the Big Six?

To answer such questions, scientists have to compare extinction rates today to extinction rates in the past. Anthony Barnosky and his colleagues have been studying what hap- pened to mammalian biodiversity in North America when humans arrived roughly 15, years ago Carrasco et al. These scientists compiled databases of fossils from 15 different biogeographical provinces across the continent, such as the Gulf Figure This map shows the past and projected loss of rain forests on Borneo, an island the size of Texas.

The forests are being cut for timber and palm oil plantations. Adapted from BlueGreen Alliance The rapid loss of forest habitat in Borneo is endangering many species, including the orangutan, which lives only on Borneo and Sumatra, where severe deforestation is also taking place. A Deforestation in Borneo, Indonesia, —, and projections toward B chapter fourteen macroevolution: In each province, they estimated the diversity of mam- mals for the past 30 million years and calculated the mean extinction rate.

The background extinction rate was 1. Barnosky and his colleagues found that immediately after the arrival of humans, the diversity of mammals dropped between 15 and 42 percent. This drop in diversity translates to an elevated extinction rate: While the changing climate at the end of the Ice Age may have driven some extinctions, humans likely caused extinctions of a number of mammal species by hunting them for food San- dom et al. Barnosky and some of his fellow Berkeley biologists have also compared past mass extinctions to the changes to biodiversity over the past five centuries Barnosky et al.

When they considered how many species have been documented as going extinct over the past five centuries, they found that the current rate of extinction is higher than that of the end-Pleistocene event. But if endangered and threatened species also become extinct in the near future, the rate will rise dramatically. At the moment, they conclude, we are not in the midst of the sixth mass extinction event. But unless we stem the tide of extinctions, they will rise in a matter of centuries to the ranks of the Big Five Figure As sobering as these results may be, they may actually underestimate the threat of extinction.

Barnosky and his colleagues took into account only the extinctions that have already occurred due to factors such as exploitation, habitat loss, and the spread of diseases. But humans are also altering the atmosphere, and the effects of that change are just now starting to be felt.

Every year, humans release more than 7 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Over the past two centuries, humans have raised the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air from parts per million ppm in to ppm in Depending on how much coal, gas, and oil we burn in the future, levels of car- bon dioxide could reach parts per million in a few decades Figure As this carbon dioxide enters the oceans, it is making the water more acidic, with potentially huge impacts on marine life.

As the pH of seawater drops, the additional hydrogen ions interfere with the growth of coral reefs and shell-bearing mollusks, such as snails and , Distant past Recent past Future fossil record known extinctions modeled 10, Extinctions per thousand species per millennium Projected future extinction rate is more than 10 times as high as current rate Current extinction rate is up to times higher than 10 rate in fossil record 1 Figure If it increases, as many scientists now predict, we are enter- ing a new pulse of mass extinctions.

Human activity has already dramatically raised the concentration of carbon diox- ide in the atmosphere.

As a result, the average temperature of the planet has shown a warming trend for the past century. Computer projections consistently show that the planet will warm much more in the next century if the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide continues to increase.

This rapid climate change may raise the extinction rate even higher by reducing the habi- tat where species can find suitable temperatures and rainfall. These animals may simply die, and the reefs may disinte- grate. The collapse of coral reefs could lead to more extinctions because they serve as shelters for a quarter of all marine animal species Figure Ocean acidification has been hypothesized to have caused the disappearance of coral reefs after all five of the mass extinctions.

The reefs did not return to their former extent for at least 4 million years after each event Veron Carbon dioxide, as we saw earlier, is also a heat-trapping gas. The average global temperature has already risen 0. Over the next century, computer models project, the planet will warm several more degrees unless we can slow down the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Animals and plants have already responded to climate change Parmesan Thousands of species have shifted their ranges.

Other species that live on mountainsides have shifted to higher elevations. This movement is a common evolutionary event, but today it may be occurring at a faster than normal rate. The effects of climate change on biodiversity in the future are far from clear, but many scientists warn that they could be devastating. Among the first victims of climate change may be mountain-dwelling species. As they move to higher elevations, they will chapter fourteen macroevolution: Polar bears and other animals adapted to life near the poles may also see their habitats melt away.

In other cases, the climate envelope will shift far away from its current location. Some species may be able to shift as well, but many slow-dispersing species will not Hannah ; Urban After all, extinction is a fact of life, and life on Earth has endured through big pulses of extinctions in the past, only to rebound to even higher levels of diversity. Mass extinctions are a serious matter, even on purely selfish grounds. Mangroves protect coastal populations from storms and soil erosion, but they are now being rapidly destroyed.

People who depend on fish for food or income will be harmed by the collapse of coral reefs, which provide shelter for fish larvae.

Bees and other insects pollinate billions of dollars of crops, and now, as introduced diseases are driving down their populations, farmers will suffer as well. Biodiversity also sustains the ecosystems that support human life, whether they are wetlands that purify water or soil in which plants grow. In some cases, a single species can disappear without much harm to an ecosystem.

The studies by Barnosky and his colleagues show us that if we maintain our current course, we will enter the sixth great mass extinction event. In other words, we still have time to change our impact on the natural the global temperature, atmospheric world.

And we can use the insights from macroevolution to guide our actions. To sum up. Macroevolution describes evolution at a much larger scale; it is evolu- tion applied above the species level, including the origination, diversification, and extinction of species and clades over long periods of time.

Disper- sal describes the movement of organisms from their place of origin, for example, a seed being transported to an island by wind. Vicariance is the process of bar- rier formation, such as the barriers that develop through plate tectonics e. Lineages can also experi- ence stasis and bursts of change.

The difference between a and V determines the fate of a particular clade. These key innovations can allow the organism to exploit new and undercontested habitats or novel ways of life. The struggle between predators and prey acceler- ated the diversification of animal lineages. At least five mass extinctions have occurred, but no clear ecological or taxonomic signal or cause unites all five. Multiple Choice Questions Answers can be found on page How are extinctions related to biodiversity?

What is the turnover rate in stage B in Figure Which of the following is NOT a hypothesis about the biodiversity. The typical tempo of extinctions within a particular taxon 3.

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Which of these statements about vicariance is TRUE? Plate tectonics are a primary mechanism of vicariance. Background extinction. Mass extinction. Vicariance prevents dispersal. Total extinction. Both a and b are true. Episodic extinction. All of the above are true. Can the Big Five extinctions all be attributed to a single cause?

If so, what caused them? The Big Five extinctions were caused by asteroids that had major impacts on habitats when they hit the Earth. The Big Five extinctions were caused by various abiotic and biotic factors that affected different taxa differently. The Big Five extinctions resulted from low origina- tion rates that resulted from a variety of biotic factors.

The Big Five extinctions resulted from plate tec- e. The Big Five extinctions are statistical anomalies tonics that changed the quantity and quality of avail- caused by examining families as taxonomic units able habitats.

Short Answer Questions Answers can be found on page What are the differences between microevolution and 3. What is the difference between an abiotic and a biotic macroevolution? What are the similarities? Which has factor, and how might these factors have contributed to more evidentiary support: Provide examples.

Should humans be concerned about the pace of extinc- 2. What lines of evidence have macroevolutionary biolo- tions of organisms that are not directly related to our gists used to determine the origin of marsupials?

How are survival? Additional Reading Barnosky, A. Dodging Extinction: Power, Food, Money, and the Sepkoski, D. Rereading the Fossil Record: University of California Press. University of Chicago Benton, M. Introduction to Paleobiology Press. Hoboken, NJ: Sepkoski, D. Ruse, eds.

The Paleobiological Revolution: Erwin, D. The Cambrian Explosion. Essays on the Growth of Modern Paleontology. University of Greenwood Village, CO: Roberts and Company. Chicago Press. Hunt, G. Evolution in Fossil Lineages: Paleontology and the Stanley, S. Macroevolution, Pattern and Process.

Baltimore, Origin of Species. American Naturalist S1: Johns Hopkins University Press. Kocher, T. Adaptive Evolution and Explosive Speciation: The Vrba, E. Eldredge, eds. Diversity, Dis- Cichlid Fish Model. Nature Reviews Genetics 5: Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould. Lawrence, KS: Paleontological Society.

Schluter, D. The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation. Oxford University Press. Age and Rate of Diversifi- Fossil Record. Proceed- Suppl 1: Alvarez, L. Alvarez, F.

Asaro, and H. Knoll, and J. Anatomical terrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Marine Realm. Princeton, Princeton University Press. Bambach, R. Knoll, and S. Origination, Alvarez, W. Kauffman, F. Surlyk, L. Asaro, et al. Extinction, and Mass Depletions of Marine Diversity.

Paleobiology 30 Science Barnosky, A. Matzke, S. Tomiya, G. Wogan, B. Swartz, et al.

Nature Ridgwell, D. Schmidt, E. Thomas, S. Gibbs, et al. The Geological Record of Ocean Acidification. Fitting and Comparing Models of Phyletic Evolution: Random Walks and Beyond. Paleobiology 32 4: Beck, R. Godthelp, V. Weisbecker, M. Archer, and S. International Institute for Species Exploration. State of Arizona State University. Bertelsmeier, P. Leadley, W. Thuiller, and F. Impacts of Climate Change on the Future of Biodiversity.

DEPARTMENTS

Ecol- Jablonski, D. Macroevolutionary Trends in Space and Time. In In Search of the Causes of Evolution: From Field Observations to Benton, M. When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinc- Mechanisms, ed. Grant and B. Grant pp. Princeton, tion of All Time. New York: BlueGreen Alliance. Illegal Logging in Indonesia: The Environ- Jackson, J. Phylogeny Reconstruction mental, Economic and Social Costs. Keller, G. Impact Stratigraphy: Old Principle, New Reality. Brusatte, S.

Butler, P. Barrett, M. Carrano, D. The Extinction of the Dinosaurs. Biological Reviews. The Budd, G. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Bio- Legg, D. Sutton, G. Edgecombe, and J. Pro- Burgess, S. Bowring, and S. Biological Sciences Proceedings of the National Lerner, H. Meyer, H. James, M. Hofreiter, and R. Academy of Sciences USA 9: Barnosky, and R. Pre-Anthropogenic Baseline.

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Losos, J. Punctuated Equilibria: An Alterna- Evolutionary Determinism. American Naturalist 6: In Models in Paleobiology, ed. Adaptation and Diversification Schopf pp. San Francisco: Upchurch, R. Benson, and A.

The Years Ago. Princeton, NJ: Latitudinal Biodiversity Gradient through Deep Time. Trends in Ecol- Erwin, D. Greenwood Village, CO: Mayhew, P. Perspec- Grimaldi, D. Evolution of the Insects. Biological Reviews 82 3: Cambridge University Press. Bell, T. Benton, and A. Bio- Hannah, L. Saving a Million Species. Washington, DC: Proceedings of the National Island Press. Academy of Sciences USA Harvey, P.

Holmes, A. Mooers, and S. Infer- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. In Models in Well-Being: Island Press. Phylogeny Reconstruction, eds. Scotland, D. Siebert, and D. Williams pp. Tittensor, S. Adl, A. Simpson, and B.Extinction, and Mass Depletions of Marine Diversity. Vicariance prevents dispersal.

Marsupial mammals, for example, are mostly found in Australia, high diversity is the result of an origi- whereas other regions of the world have much lower levels of marsupial diversity.

The rocks also reveal a massive shift in carbon isotopes over just 10, years that occurred shortly before the extinctions. Macroevolution at the Dawn of the Animal Kingdom As spectacular as the adaptive radiation of insects may have been, it was, in some respects, a modest event.

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